A circuit board doesn’t have to be operational for functional tests to be applied to its I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) interfaces. What you need is 3 things: on-board 1149.1 JTAG, an FPGA and some IP. In fact, the board doesn’t even have to boot and its functional firmware/software can be a long way from complete. Now, that’s powerful.
The ability to perform at-speed functional I2C tests on non-functional prototype circuit boards can speed up the entire development process and enables concurrent engineering. This eBook explains how to test I2C interfaces structurally and functionally at-speed with no firmware or functional software present using embedded instrumentation IP inserted into an on-board FPGA. Or use the same technique for programming SPI Flash or EEPROM at max speed for that matter.